Bremerton BEQ Building 1044


Bremerton, WA


Staticmap?center=47.5628, 122.644&size=175x175&scale=2&markers=color:red%7csize:small%7c47.5628, 122
Building type
Multi-unit residential
Floor Area (ft2)
Floor Area (m2)
Date of Occupancy/ Completion
Annual Water Use (gal/ft2)
Annual Water Use (L/m2)
Annual Purchased Energy (kBtu/ft2)
Annual Energy Cost ($US/ft2)
Annual Purchased Energy (MJ/m2)
Annual Energy Cost ($US/m2)
Total Project Cost (land excluded)($US)
Certifications & Awards
  • LEED-NC v.2/v.2.1 in 2006 achievement level Certified (29 points)
Project Team
  • Owner: Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton


The Bremerton Bachelor Enlisted Quarters (BEQ) Building 1044, was constructed as part of a navy base housing complex that will eventually contain seven BEQ buildings divided into several projects extending through 2015. The building provides 132 living units along with common areas and support spaces. The living units are occupied only when the sailors are on-shore.

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  • Location: Bremerton, WA
  • Building type(s): Multi-unit residential
  • New construction
  • 99,800 sq. feet (9,270 sq. meters)
  • Project scope: 8-story building
  • Suburban setting
  • Completed December 2004
  • Rating: U.S. Green Building Council LEED-NC, v.2/v.2.1--Level: Certified (29 points)

The Bremerton Bachelor Enlisted Quarters (BEQ) Building 1044, was constructed as part of a navy base housing complex that will eventually contain seven BEQ buildings divided into several projects extending through 2015. The building provides 132 living units along with common areas and support spaces. The living units are occupied only when the sailors are on-shore.

Environmental Aspects

Green features in the design and construction of Building 1044 were guided by the LEED(r) Rating System. Site restoration, porous pavement, and removal of hardscapes reduce stormwater flows by 25% compared to predevelopment conditions. Asphalt from the structures formerly on the site was recycled during demolition into aggregate for future paving on the site. Wood, asphalt, gypsum, steel, cardboard, and other construction debris recycling resulted in a greater than 90% diversion of construction waste from the landfill. Integrated energy efficiency strategies reduce the base building energy use by approximately 35% compared to the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 standard. Dual-sensor direct digital controls (DDC) further contribute to energy savings by allowing power to each apartment unit to be turned off when the unit is unoccupied. The architects accounted for the future use of the building in their plans. Apartment units are designed to house four occupants with the ability to convert to two-occupant housing. Highly durable building materials with minimum maintenance requirements act as finishes throughout the building. A green housekeeping plan for maintenance staff and occupants lowers the building's maintenance impact.

Owner & Occupancy

  • Owned and occupied by Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton, Federal government

  • Typically occupied by 528 people, 168 hours per person per week

Building Programs

Indoor Spaces: Living quarters, Restrooms, Lobby/reception, Circulation, Office
Outdoor Spaces: Shade structures/outdoor rooms, Pedestrian/non-motorized vehicle path, Patio/hardscape, Athletic field


Integrated team, Design charrette, Green framework, Simulation, Commissioning, Operations and maintenance, Open space preservation, Stormwater management, Efficient irrigation, Durability, C&D waste management, Occupant recycling, Connection to outdoors, Low-emitting materials

Team & Process

An important part of the development of the project came when, early in the design process, the contractor's vice president declared that he didn't want the building just certifiable by LEED(r) standards, he wanted to actually achieve LEED certification. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) requires that the building be certifiable, but does not require certification.

The contractor was selected based on a combination of technical merit and cost. The technical merits of the contractor's proposal included sustainable design capabilities, and the retention of a sustainable design consultant.

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) supplied a floor plan for the project, but the design team modified this plan significantly. The project kick-off thus included a charrette at which the design team redesigned the floor plan, creating a single flexible room layout that could be flipped and mirrored to create the various units.

The project was procured through a multiple awards construction contract (MACC) design-build contract.

The design team held weekly progress reports, including a check-in about the status of the selected sustainable design measures, using a comprehensive RFP-checklist.

Challenges included undocumented underground utility systems, asbestos abatement, and an environmentally sensitive site.

The room design created during the charrette process was tested by building a full-scale mock-up of a sample unit on the construction site. This mock-up helped the owners understand the unit layout much better. As the owners walked through the three-dimensional space, they identified problems and adjusted the design. For example, the bathroom seemed excessively small, and the mock-up helped them determine that it was possible to enlarge it slightly by rotating the studs, creating a thinner partition wall.

The commissioning agent was also involved in the mock-up process, and as he examined the air system he noticed a fan location that would make filter changes difficult. His suggestion to move the fan 1-1/2 inches made the filters easy to access.

The mock-up served as a room "template," too. The mechanical and plumbing systems were tested on the mock-up until all of the participants were satisfied. Then, the ducts and piping systems were fabricated in a shop, brought to the site, and put in place. Waste from the fabrication never came to the site and the uniform pieces were fabricated more efficiently because pipe sections could be reused right away in the shop. Overall, the mock-ups contributed considerably to the effectiveness of the just-in-time delivery, reduced waste, and increased the project's efficiency.

The sustainable design consultant prepared a comprehensive document, "Guidelines for Green Operations & Maintenance." The program outlined in this document should reduce the environmental and health impacts of the facility over time.

The project is pursuing both the LEED commissioning prerequisite and the third-party commissioning point. A post-occupancy commissioning plan will guide the process of fine-tuning the systems, retraining the staff, and monitoring operations.

  • Trane Trace(r) 700 v4.1 was used for energy modeling.
Joe Tomko Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton Owner/developer (Project lead) Bremerton, WA
[Marje Fossum](learnmore.cfm?ProjectID=498) Engineering Field Activity Northwest, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Project manager Bremerton, WA
Tom Eidsmoe Soltek Pacific Contractor (Project manager) Seattle, WA [](
Steve Parshall Soltek Pacific Contractor (Project superintendent) San Diego, CA [](
Dave Steuart Soltek Pacific Contractor (Quality control and LEED implementation manager) San Diego, CA [](
Scott Harm Belay Architecture, LCC Architect Tacoma, WA [](
Michael Repka, LEED AP Belay Architecture, LCC Architect Tacoma, WA [](
Larry Swartz, PE Notkin Mechanical Engineers Mechanical engineer (Project manager) Seattle, WA [](
Bob Sparling, PE Sparling Electrical engineer Seattle, WA [](
David Schwartz, PE KPFF Consulting Engineers Civil engineer Seattle, WA [](
Greg Varney, PE, SE KPFF Consulting Engineers Structural engineer Seattle, WA [](
Robin Wille Robin Wille Interior designer Seattle, WA [](
Jack Johnson Site Workshop, LLC Landscape architect (Project manager) Seattle, WA [](
Jane Simmons, PE, LEED AP O'Brien & Company, Inc. Sustainability consultant Bainbridge Island, WA [](
Tom Gurlowski, PE Shannon & Wilson Geo/hazard testing Seattle, WA [](
Bob Pielow Pielow Fair Associates Code analysis Seattle, WA
Jeff Small Welsh Commissioning Group (as Keithly Welsh Associates) Commissioning agent Auburn, WA [](
Bryan Welsh Welsh Commissioning Group (as Keithly Welsh Associates) Commissioning agent Auburn, WA [](

Finance & Cost

  • Equity: Government appropriation
  • Procurement process: Design-build

Cost data in U.S. dollars as of date of completion.

  • Total project cost (land excluded): $21,000,000

The original contract award amount was $24.3 million. The contract included upgrading sewer and electrical systems, which were underground and undocumented. Additionally, the contract amount provided for furniture. The building itself came in below budget.

Overall, costs associated with meeting LEED requirements were less than 1.5% of total construction costs.

Land Use & Community

The Bremerton Bachelors Enlisted Quarters (BEQ) Building 1044 is the first of eight buildings for a planned BEQ campus. In redeveloping the site, the architects increased the density of occupation by replacing a small building with a large building. They also replaced surface parking adjacent to the building with grenn space for the occupants and visitors. The Navy has agreed to preserve this open space in perpetuity.

Covered bike storage for 15% of the building occupants and a mix of programmed and unprogrammed outdoor spaces encourage a pedestrian community. Two bus stops are also located within 650 ft of the building.

  • Support for Appropriate Transportation

    • Design development to have pedestrian emphasis rather than automobile emphasis

    • Provide safe access for bicyclers and pedestrians
    • Provide storage area for bicycles
    • Provide access to public transportation
  • Property Selection Opportunities

    • Select already-developed sites for new development
    • Look for a property where infrastructure needs can be combined

Site Description

Restoration and preservation of open spaces, including landscaping with large trees, created wooded, park-like areas on the site. Site restoration reduced stormwater flows by 25% compared to predevelopment conditions by utilizing strategies such as the removal of hardscapes and installation of porous pavement for emergency fire lanes. Runoff from the parking lot is treated with a proprietary system.

The design team took advantage of the site, locating the mechanical room in an unexcavated, sloped area, avoiding the importation of soils to build up the land.

  • Lot size: 174,182.88 acres
  • Building footprint: 12,500 sq ft (1,160 sq meters)
  • Preexisting structure(s), Previously developed land

Water Conservation and Use

In addition to the reduction and treatment of stormwater flows, Building 1044 features water-efficient landscaping that requires no permanent irrigation system. Artificial turf in the high-use recreation areas, such as the horseshoe pit, eliminates the need for maintenance and water use in those areas.

Water Use - Outdoor potable water use: 0 gal/yr (0 liters/yr)

  • Runoff Reduction

    • Reduce driveway pavement
    • Consider porous turf-paving systems on low-traffic parking and driveway areas

  • Managing Stormwater

    • Incorporate a pollutant separation/filtering system in parking lot drains

  • Demand for Irrigation

    • Utilize non-plant landscaping
  • Irrigation Systems

    • Use water-efficient irrigation fixtures
  • Low-Impact Siting

    • Select building sites that make use of existing infrastructure


Integrated energy efficiency strategies are expected to reduce the building energy use by approximately 34% compared to the national ASHRAE 90.1-1999 standard. Some of the energy efficiency strategies include high-efficiency motors for all fans and pumps that provide at least 3.0 horsepower and variable-speed drives on the secondary chilled water pumps. Domestic hot water is provide with semi-instantaneous water heaters, which use steam to heat water in small storage tanks located near the points of end use—these are expected to reduce energy costs by 15%.

A four-pipe fan-coil system provides mechanical heating, cooling, and ventilation. Steam from a central plant heats the water for this system; chilled water comes from the building's own air-cooled chiller. A 120-ton dual circuit chiller was installed in the service yard of the facility, replacing the two rooftop units called for in the request for proposals. Each living unit has its own fan coil and thermostat. Dual-sensor direct digital controls (DDC) allows power to apartment units to be turned off when unoccupied.

Lighting values are 0.8 watts per square foot installed, about half the value suggested in ASHRAE 90.1. High-efficiency fluorescent lighting is used throughout the interior, supplemented with incandescent task lighting and accent lighting.


Materials & Resources

Recycling chutes on each floor lead to a central recycling area in the basement. In compliance with LEED EA Prerequisite 3 and Credit 4, the HVAC systems are CFC-, HCFC-, and Halon-free.

The project diverted 5,500 tons of waste from the landfill, a 93% diversion. Much of the diverted material was recycled, but almost three and a half tons of steel doors, frames, equipment, lights, and poles were reused.

The combination of shotcrete concrete walls and a regular, symmetrical building reduced concrete formwork since forms could be flipped and mirrored instead of being reconstructed for each floor.

Four-person living units were designed to facilitate possible conversion into smaller one- or two-person units. Dual temperature sensors on the fan coil units also facilitate this conversion.

  • Protection of Global Ecosystem

    • Minimize ozone-depletion potential of refrigerants in cooling systems

  • Design for Materials Use Reduction

    • Cluster buildings to minimize infrastructure requirements
  • Plan for Materials Longevity

    • Use materials and systems with low maintenance requirements
  • Job Site Recycling

    • Use reusable forms
    • Require a waste management plan from the contractor
  • Recycling by Occupants

    • Design a physical in-house recycling system
  • Pre-Consumer Recycled Materials

    • Use recycled materials as aggregate in the concrete
  • Materials and Wildlife Habitat

    • Use wood products from independently certified, well-managed forests for finish carpentry

  • Transportation of Materials

    • Prefer materials that are sourced and manufactured within the local area

Indoor Environment

During the construction of Building 1044, stringent IAQ controls protected building materials from moisture and prevented the contamination of HVAC ductwork with construction debris. The HVAC system provides occupants with indoor temperature and humidity levels falling within the thermal comfort bands of ASHRAE-55. Low-VOC interior adhesives and sealants and interior paints and coatings complying with VOC and chemical component limits of Green Seal's Standard GS-11 all contribute to a healthy indoor environment. Furthermore, specification of interior composite wood materials containing no added urea-formaldehyde resins and low-emitting interior furnishings and furniture work in conjunction with the low-VOC strategy.

Permanent entryway walk-off mats, appropriate drains, and separate ventilation for housekeeping areas minimize pollutant cross-contamination of regularly occupied areas to complete the chemical reduction strategy. Finally, users have access to views, increasing the level of visual comfort in the building.

  • Entry of Pollutants

    • Design entry to facilitate removal of dirt before entering building

  • Direct Exhaust from High-source Locations

    • Provide local exhaust ventilation for rooms with high-emitting sources

  • Reduction of Indoor Pollutants

    • Use only very low or no-VOC paints
    • Avoid wood products made with urea-formaldehyde binder
  • Migration of Pollutants

    • Establish protocols for controlling the spread of pollutants during work on occupied buildings

  • Ventilation During Construction

    • Provide temporary filters on any permanent air-handling devices used during construction

  • Building Commissioning for IEQ

    • Use a comprehensive commissioning process to ensure that design intent is realized


  • Outstanding Interim Performance Evaluation from the Navy Category/title: Successfully delivered on budget and 11 months ahead of schedule

  • Society for American Military Engineers (SAME) Design Excellence Competition in 2005;  Category/title: Design/Build Category - Silver Award


  • U.S. Green Building Council LEED-NC, v.2/v.2.1 in 2006;  achievement level: Certified (29 points)

    • Sustainable Sites, 6 of 14 possible points

      • SS Prerequisite 1, Erosion & Sedimentation Control
      • SS Credit 1, Site Selection
      • SS Credit 4.1, Alternative Transportation, Public Transportation Access

      • SS Credit 4.2, Alternative Transportation, Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms

      • SS Credit 4.4, Alternative Transportation, Parking Capacity
      • SS Credit 5.2, Reduced Site Disturbance, Development Footprint
      • SS Credit 6.1, Stormwater Management, Rate and Quantity
    • Water Efficiency, 2 of 5 possible points

      • WE Credit 1.1, Water Efficient Landscaping, Reduce by 50%
      • WE Credit 1.2, Water Efficient Landscaping, No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation

    • Energy and Atmosphere, 7 of 17 possible points

      • EA Prerequisite 1, Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning
      • EA Prerequisite 2, Minimum Energy Performance
      • EA Prerequisite 3, CFC Reduction in HVAC&R Equipment
      • EA Credit 1.1a, Optimize Energy Performance, 15% New 5% Existing

      • EA Credit 1.1b, Optimize Energy Performance, 20% New 10% Existing

      • EA Credit 1.2a, Optimize Energy Performance, 25% New 15% Existing

      • EA Credit 1.2b, Optimize Energy Performance, 30% New 20% Existing

      • EA Credit 1.3a, Optimize Energy Performance, 35% New 25% Existing

      • EA Credit 3, Additional Commissioning
      • EA Credit 4, Ozone Depletion
    • Materials and Resources, 5 of 13 possible points

      • MR Prerequisite 1, Storage & Collection of Recyclables
      • MR Credit 2.1, Construction Waste Management, Divert 50%
      • MR Credit 2.2, Construction Waste Management, Divert 75%
      • MR Credit 4.1, Recycled Content: 5% (post-consumer + 1/2 post-industrial)

      • MR Credit 5.1, Local/Regional Materials, 20% Manufactured Locally

      • MR Credit 5.2, Local/Regional Materials, of 20% Above, 50% Harvested Locally

    • Indoor Environmental Quality, 6 of 15 possible points

      • EQ Prerequisite 1, Minimum IAQ Performance
      • EQ Prerequisite 2, Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
      • EQ Credit 4.1, Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives & Sealants
      • EQ Credit 4.2, Low-Emitting Materials, Paints
      • EQ Credit 4.4, Low-Emitting Materials, Composite Wood
      • EQ Credit 5, Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control
      • EQ Credit 7.1, Thermal Comfort, Comply with ASHRAE 55-1992
      • EQ Credit 8.2, Daylight & Views, Views for 90% of Spaces
    • Innovation and Design Process, 3 of 5 possible points

      • ID Credit 1.1, Innovation in Design "Green Housekeeping"
      • ID Credit 1.2, Innovation in Design "Use of Mockups to Optimize Materials Use and Schedule"

      • ID Credit 2, LEED® Accredited Professional

Lessons Learned

The Bremerton Engineering Facilities personnel in charge of the project were convinced by their experience to "never award to the low bidder." They were very pleased with the work of their contractor, selected on the basis of technical merit and cost. For instance, the contractor stated that they wouldn't need as much time to complete the project as the RFP allowed, and they worked toward that goal so that the project was finished 11 months early.

Navy protocol normally requires a different contract to hire an interior designer to outfit the building with furnishings. However, for Building 1044, the contractor with the construction contract was awarded a modification to furnish the building. Their in-house interior designer found, ordered, and installed all of the furniture and equipment. The one thing that they didn't provide was the washers and driers. When those arrived, they didn't fit the spaces designed for them. This reinforced the conviction of the Bremerton staff that it made more sense to have one contractor coordinating everything on the project.

The original RFP required that the project be LEED-certifiable at the Silver level. A commitment on the part of the contractor to pursue actual LEED certification, as opposed to mere “certifiable” status, helped the team as a whole follow through on the various measures needed for certification.

Learn More

It is not possible to visit this project and tours are not available.

*Primary Contact* Marje Fossum Engineering Field Activity Northwest, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Project manager Bremerton, WA   360-476-0913